1Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center, Environment Health Dept., Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
2Environmental Health Unit, Deputy of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
Background and aims: Beauty salons are considered as the places which the environmental health and renovation are adhered too. they can improve the society’s health and influence controlling the diseases. Not considering this issue causes the spread of skin and hair diseases and infections and louse. This study was aimed to determine the health status of beauty salons of Kashan in 2014. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done in 2014 in Kashan. Out of 320 beauty salons in Kashan, 220 were selected at random. Collecting the data was through observation, interview, filling the questionnaires and check lists in the beauty salons. Data collection was done on the basis of the environmental health evaluation form for beauty salons. The check list related to each beauty salon was completed and the data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The results of this study showed that 45.5% of the salon employees had participated in the special course of public health and 54.5% had personal health card. Fifty one point four percent of them were acceptable in terms of personal hygiene and 52.7% shared the tools and equipment. Half of the beauty salons had been sanitized and 52.3% of them had soaps and towels. Conclusion: The results showed that the beauty salons in Kashan had acceptable building status. Some personal hygiene factors such as personal health card, public health certificate and observing personal hygiene needs more training. Also, more supervision and inspection must be carried out by the environmental health experts.
World Health Organization defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”1 Health is a fundamental right for human beings.2 Ignoring this right causes disease, poverty and pain for millions of people.3 Attention to personal hygiene and sanitation of human’s surroundings has special importance in the health of the individual and society.4 Beauty salons are the kind of places that paying attention to their environmental health and renovation affects the improvement of society health level and disease controlling.5 Beauty salons, as public places, can increase the risk of transmitting diseases if sanitary measures are not considered or infected tools are used.6
Disregarding hygiene standards and using infected tools such as towels, combs and blades causes the spread of microbial, viral, fungal, bacterial infections and dermal diseases, eczema, wart, trachoma, tetanus, louse, etc.7 Tools such as tweezers and scissors are the sharp and frequently used tools in beauty salons which can easily transmit diseases from one person to another.8 Transmission of diseases in beauty salons as a public place is a very important issue which is sometimes forgotten. Generally, the transmissible diseases in beauty salons include blood and dermal diseases. Some of the important dermal diseases are fungus and Tinea. Other diseases which can be transmitted in beauty salons are warts and bacterial infections. Some of these diseases can even cause death.9
Reports of transmission of HCV and HBV through using shared blades and razors have been published in different countries of the world.10 Viral hepatitis, as one of the five infectious factors of human’s early death in the world, imposes lots of economic, social and psychic costs. Chronic cases of these disease have many consequences.11 These diseases are transmitted in beauty salons through the contact of the clients’ aprons, combs, scissors, blades, and sharing towels and facial hair removal.12
Many factors are effective in transmission of diseases in beauty salons. The most important ones are the unawareness of the employees about the principles and tips of personal hygiene and inappropriate and unsanitary places.13 Allergy is a kind of body’s transformed rapid reaction to a previously encountered allergens which the individual’s immune system was stimulated by, allergen is a substance that causes an allergic reaction to certain individuals. There are different allergic factors including inhaling and edible allergens, contact by different materials, insect secretion, drug allergens, etc.14
In a conducted study in Borojen, it was determined that 2.7% of the tools and equipment in women beauty salons and 18.3% of barber shops were undesirable.4 The results of Rahimizadeh et al. study in Mashhad showed that the beauty salons in the low class areas of the city had a more desirable status in comparison with those in the high class areas.12 To provide and improve the hygiene level of the employees of the beauty salons and the clients and reduction of the risk of transmitting blood-borne diseases, it is necessary to monitor continually the status of the workplace, the staff and correctly disinfect the tools.15
According to the public health regulations of Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the environmental health status of the beauty salons should be investigated in terms of three aspects of personal hygiene, tools hygiene and the building’s status and health. Considering the importance of the subject and since there has been no studies on the beauty salons till now, this study was done in Kashan in 2014.
This descriptive-analytical study was done in 2014 in Kashan for 220 beauty salons. The statistical population in this study was the beauty salons in Kashan which were selected at simple random sampling. Data collection tools were the questionnaire of the evaluation form of environmental health for beauty salons and according to the existing instructions which were provided by Health Ministry.
The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts. The questionnaire included questions about passing the public health courses, having clean and bright apron, having soap and towel, respecting the environmental health, having sanitary water and sewage disposal system, having proper ventilation, etc. The questionnaires were completed by visiting the place and verbal interview with the persons in charge. Also by going to the environmental health centers of clinics and interview with the experts, the check lists were completed and then a code was given to each question. Then, the data were analyzed with SPSS software.
The obtained data showed that only 44.5% of the beauty salons had passed the special public health course and 55.5% of the employees did not have the necessary certificates. Only 51.4% of the salon employees were diligent in observing personal hygiene and 73.2% of them wore clean and bright apron. About 48.6% of the salons had no specified dressing room. While 51.4% of the beauty salons had the first aid box and had hanged it on the proper location (Figure 1 and Table 1).
Table 1: The results of the investigation according to the health regulations of beauty salons in Kashan in 2014
Attending the public health course
Having personal health card
Displaying the personal health card in the salons
Observing personal hygiene
Having clean and bright apron
Having a place for the clothes
Having soap and towel
Having the first aid box and hanging it in the proper place
Proper doors and windows
Sanitary sewage system
Sanitary and suitable restrooms
Suitable air condition
Suitable air temperature
Suitable natural or artificial lighting
Prediction for fire fighting
Proper waste container
Lack of mosquito, fly and other insects in the salon
Sharing tools such as blades, towels etc. for all clients
Proper table surface
Having clean and good benches
Figure 1: Status of effective factors on personal hygiene of womens, beauty salons in Kashan in 2014
Figure 2: Status of effective factors on building and hygiene conditions of women beauty salons in Kashan in 2014
In terms of building status of the beauty salons, 75% had proper floors, 86.8% proper walls, 87.7% proper roofs and 86.4% proper doors and windows. All beauty salons used sanitary water. About 95.9% of the beauty salons had sanitary sewage system. The results showed that 56.4% of the beauty salons had desirable restrooms, 76.8% of them had proper shelves and showcases and 47.7% did not have proper ventilation. Only 54.5% of the beauty salons had the necessary firefighting equipment. The results showed that 85% of the beauty salons had a desirable room temperature and 83.6% of them had natural or artificial lighting. Only 65.9% of the beauty salons had proper waste container and 88.6% had tables with suitable surface and 89.1% used clean and good benches (Figure 2 and Table 1). In 73.2% of the beauty salons, mosquitoes, flies and other insects were not seen. And 47.3% of the employees shared tools such as blades and towels for clients.
In this study, it was indicated that only 44.5% of the employees of the beauty salons attended the special public health course. The study of Hazrati et al. in Ardebil showed that employees of 35% of the selected beauty salons attended the course. This difference may be because of the difference in the number of the statistical population. The special public health course in which the training related to hairdressing is presented by environmental health experts, is very important for the salon employees’ and society’s health. Maybe lack of supervision by the authorities caused the absence of the salon employees in the related courses.15
Physical health of the salon employees is almost determined by personal health card. Salon employees’ health controlling is important in terms of parasitic, dermal diseases, etc. However, the importance of their physical health is not yet comprehended by them. The results showed that the employees of 51.5% of the beauty salons had personal health card.
This result was similar to the study of Rahimizadeh et al. in Gorgan.12 Also 26.8% of the salon employees did not use clean uniforms which show their lack of attention to hygiene. Separating the working clothes from other clothes is essential in controlling the public health and personal hygiene, but only 51.8% of the beauty salons used special place for working clothes.
The results of this study showed that 51.4% of the salon employees observed personal hygiene and public health issues. Also, the study of Salim et al. indicated that there was a significant difference in the salon employees’ awareness level with their age. The age group of 15-25 years old had a better knowledge about their job’s health risks rather than the age group of 26-50 years old. Nearly, half of the salon employees (52.7%) used communal tools for the clients which might result in illnesses such as hepatitis and AIDS. This result was in accordance with Wazir et al. study.16 However, in the study of Sadegh et al. 94.8% of the beauty salons shared tools for the clients. This difference may show the lack of knowledge about personal hygiene.15
It was indicated in this study that 51.4% of the beauty salons had first aid box. Considering the fact that they deal with sharp tools in this job, not having the first aid box is a threat. Maybe, the cost of the box and not feeling the need to the items of this box are the reasons for not providing the box. In terms of the building conditions (proper wall, roof, doors, windows, etc.), the beauty salons were evaluated desirable which this result was similar to the study of Rahimizadeh et al.12
The point that was less considered by the salon employees was the prediction for fighting fires. The beauty salons usually had no fire extinguisher or they were not charged. The results of our study showed that 54.5% of the beauty salons in Kashan had fire extinguisher while in the study of Iraj Zareban et al. this parameter was 40.9%.1
The results of this study showed that the building condition of Kashan beauty salons were desirable, But in the cases like personal health cards, public health certificates and observing personal hygiene, they were far from the desirable level. More supervision and control by the environmental health experts are recommended in addition to proper training for salon employees in workshops. By increasing the positive role of health authorities in giving awareness to people about the risks of excessive use of cosmetics and the fact that some of them are unhealthy and fake, the rate of health and economic damages to the society can decrease.17,18
The results showed that the beauty salons in Kashan had acceptable building status. Some personal hygiene factors such as personal health card, public health certificate and observing personal hygiene needs more training. Also, more supervision and inspection must be carried out by the environmental health experts.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
This study was done with the financial support of Research Center of Social Factors Effective on Health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Also the writers thank the employees of Health Division of Kashan University of Medical Sciences for their cooperation.
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