Background and aim: The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health threat complicating treatment and resulting in prolonged hospitalization. Due to the dearth of appropriate surveillance systems, the prevalence of AMR threat is not well defined. This study sought to assess the prevalence of AMR among bacterial isolates from sputum specimens obtained from patients with pneumonia presenting at two secondary healthcare facilities in Zaria over 3 months (June 1 to August 31, 2018).
Methods: Standard methodology was followed in processing sputum samples that met the acceptance criteria. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens cultured from sputum specimens obtained over a 3-month period (June 1 to August 31, 2018) was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute’s recommendation. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics.
Results: Acinetobacter spp were the predominant pathogens accounting for 32% of recovered isolates, followed by Staphylococcus spp (18%) and Klebsiella spp (17%). AMR was seen in 91% of the isolates. Most isolates were resistant to erythromycin (80%) and amoxicillin (83.3%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ≥ 0.3 was observed in 76% of the isolates.
Conclusion: This study showed that AMR rates were observed to be high and may display a serious therapeutic challenge to the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Concerted efforts are needed to combat the worrisome AMR trends revealed in this study.