Document Type : Review article

Authors

1 Pharmacology Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2 Epidemiologist, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3 School of Nursing, Gerash University of Medical Sciences, Gerash, Iran

4 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

5 Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

6 Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

7 Department of Genetics and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

Background and aims: In late December 2019, a cluster of progressive pneumonia-like respiratory syndromes broke out in Wuhan, China. As the number of cases continued to rise, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared a global public health emergency. The causative agent, i.e., SARS-CoV-2, is a highly contagious strain, which has resulted in the rapid worldwide outbreak of COVID-19. COVID-19 is an overwhelmingly transmissible disease that requires early and accurate diagnosis for proper and timely treatment of suspected cases.
 
Materials and Methods: In order to access the scientific documentation and evidence related to the subject published during 2019 to 2021, English keywords including “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “Diagnosis”, “Immunoglobulin G (IgG)”, “Immunoglobulin M (IgM)”, and ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)” were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases and Persian versions of these keywords were also looked for in Jihad-e Daneshgahi’s Scientific Information Database (SID) and Iranian Journals database (Magiran)
 
Results: With respect to diagnosis, serum antibody assays, nucleic acid sequencing, and radiologic evaluation are among the most reliable methods to rule out the disease in suspicious cases. This review is a synopsis of the pathogenesis of coronavirus, which will mainly focus on the diagnostic methods, as well as laboratory changes in immunoglobulins, polymerase chain reaction results, and computed tomography (CT) findings.
 
Conclusion: Early diagnosis matters in that it not only contributes to the prevention of further transmission of the virus by asymptomatic carriers but also paves the way for clinicians to accurately choose the best therapeutic approach depending on the status of the patients.

Keywords

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