Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Research Center of Nutrition and Organic Products (R.C.N.O.P), Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

Background and aims: Gastritis is basically caused by Campylobacter coli and jejuni, and usually occures after the consumption of raw animal products.
 
Methods: This study investigated the prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from slaughtered animals in Juneqan, Farrokhshahr, Saman, and Lordegan slaughterhouses in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province of Iran. From 40 camels, 5 samples of liver, neck meat, kidney, heart, and rectal contents were taken from each carcass. The obtained samples were cultured and then the PCR was performed for them and, finally, the toxin genes of virulence and resistance against antibiotics were examined.
 
Results: Out of 19 Campylobacter specimens isolated, 8 specimens were coli and 11 ones were jejuni. It was also found that the infection with Campylobacter in the carcasses was the highest in warmer seasons.
 
Conclusion: The carcasses of slaughtered animals in slaughterhouses were likely a potential reservoir for coli and jejuni species, and their viscera and meat could have transmitted these bacteria to humans and animals.

Keywords

1. Esfandiari Z, Weese JS, Ezzatpanah H, Chamani M, Shoaei P, Yaran M, et al. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse to retail stage in Isfahan, Iran. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2015;12(10):864-6. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1910. 
2. Rózanska H, Lewtak-Pilat A, Osek J. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from meat. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2015;59(2):229-33. doi: 10.1515/bvip- 2015-0034. 
3. Little CL, Richardson JF, Owen RJ, de Pinna E, Threlfall EJ. Prevalence, characterisation and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw poultrymeat in the UK, 2003-2005. Int J Environ Health Res. 2008;18(6):403- 14. doi: 10.1080/09603120802100220. 
4. Rahimi E, Ameri M, Kazemeini HR. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7(4):443-7. doi: 10.1089/ fpd.2009.0421. 
5. Bang DD, Nielsen EM, Scheutz F, Pedersen K, Handberg K, Madsen M. PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94(6):1003-14. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01926.x. 
6. Grant A, Hashem F, Parveen S. Salmonella and Campylobacter: antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry. Food Microbiol. 2016;53(Pt B):104-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2015.09.008. 
7. Casabonne C, Gonzalez A, Aquili V, Subils T, Balague C. Prevalence of seven virulence genes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from patients with diarrhea in Rosario, Argentina. Int J Infect. 2016;3(4):e37727. doi: 10.17795/iji-37727. 
8. Rahimi E, Ameri M, Alimoradi M, Chakeri A, Bahrami AR. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from raw camel, beef, and water buffalo meat in Iran. Comp Clin Path. 2013;22(3):467-73. doi: 10.1007/s00580-012-1434-5. 
9. Redondo N, Carroll A, McNamara E. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter causing human clinical infection using whole-genome sequencing: virulence, antimicrobial resistance and phylogeny in Ireland. PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0219088. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0219088. 
10. Wieczorek K, Osek J. A five-year study on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from poultry carcasses in Poland. Food Microbiol. 2015;49:161-5. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2015.02.006. 
11. Wieczorek K, Wolkowicz T, Osek J. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated traits of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry food chain and humans with diarrhea. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:1508. doi: 10.3389/ fmicb.2018.01508. 
12. Friedrich A, Marshall JC, Biggs PJ, Midwinter AC, French NP. Seasonality of Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with human campylobacteriosis in the Manawatu region, New Zealand. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144(4):820-8. doi: 10.1017/s0950268815002009. 
13. Raji MA, Garaween G, Ehricht R, Monecke S, Shibl AM, Senok A. Genetic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:911. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00911. 
14. El-Badawi AY. The present situation of animal protein in Egypt and the role of camels in providing cheap and healthy meat for people in poor greenery lands. Int J Avian Wildl Biol. 2018;3(4):319-22. doi: 10.15406/ijawb.2018.03.000113. 
15. Gwida MA, Zakaria A, El-Sherbiny H, Elkenany R, Elsayed MO. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus aureus in slaughtered camels. Vet Med. 2019;64(12):521-30. doi: 10.17221/104/2019-VETMED. 
16. Lehtopolku M, Nakari UM, Kotilainen P, Huovinen P, Siitonen A, Hakanen AJ. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains: in vitro activities of 20 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(3):1232-6. doi: 10.1128/ aac.00898-09. 
17. Denis M, Soumet C, Rivoal K, et al. Development of a m-PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1999;29(6):406-410. doi:10.1046/j.1472-765x.1999.00658.x.