Document Type : Original Article
Department of Community Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Department of Epidemiology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Department of Social Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Department of Internal Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Background and aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of alcohol consumption and its related factors in the patients referring to hospitals.
Methods: A hospital-based case control study was carried out in Shahrekord during 2016-2017. A total of 150 individuals who had self-report of alcohol consumption and history of alcoholism entered into the case group based on the convenience sampling method. Likewise, 300 individuals who did not have self-report of alcohol consumption entered into the control group. Group matching was performed based on the date of admission to the hospital, type of disease, complications, and duration of the disease. This study explored the pattern of alcohol consumption variables, spiritual health, quality of life, and general health. Odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated as well.
Results: The causes of onset of alcohol consumption were curiosity (41.40%), social class and imitation of others (17.40%), and life problems (15.30%). Further, the causes of continued alcohol consumption were attributed to the interest in taste and smelling (23.30%), emotional problems (20%), as well as loneliness feeling and life problems (12.60%). The mean of general health scores in the case and control groups were 29.8± 5 and 29.3± 4, respectively (P = 0.296). The mean of the quality of life in the case group and control group were 32.13± 7 and 32.11± 5, respectively (P = 0.98). The differences in the scores of spiritual health in two groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.96).
Conclusion: An attempt should be made to improve the strategies to satisfy the emotional sense and health recreations of society.
- Rehm J, Room R, Graham K, Monteiro M, Gmel G, Sempos CT. The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: an overview. Addiction. 2003;98(9):1209-28. doi: 10.1046/j.1360- 0443.2003.00467.x.
- Griswold MG, Fullman N, Hawley C, Arian N, Zimsen SRM, Tymeson HD, et al. Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2018;392(10152):1015- 35. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(18)31310-2 .
- Schuckit MA. Alcohol-use disorders. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):492-501. doi: 10.1016/s0140- 6736(09)60009-x.
- Hingson R, Heeren T, Winter M, Wechsler H. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18-24: changes from 1998 to 2001. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:259-79. doi: 10.1146/annurev. publhealth.26.021304.144652.
- Fathi M, Ahadi H, Jomehri F, Kalhornia Golkar M. The mediating role of resilience between sensation-seeking and alcohol consumption in 24-40 year-old youth in Tehran: a descriptive study. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2020;18(12):1211- 32. [Persian].
- Eashwar VMA, Umadevi R, Gopalakrishnan S. Alcohol consumption in India- an epidemiological review. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9(1):49-55. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc. jfmpc_873_19.
- World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia. Prevention of harm from alcohol use. Available from: http://apapaonline.org/data/Regional_Data/SEARO/Alcohol_ Facts_and_Figures.pdf. Accessed July 26, 2018.
- Bagnardi V, Blangiardo M, La Vecchia C, Corrao G. Alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. Alcohol Res Health. 2001;25(4):263-70.
- Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2012. p. 2726.
- Venkat KK, Arora MM, Singh P, Desai M, Khatkhatay I. Effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density and hormonal parameters in physically active male soldiers. Bone. 2009;45(3):449-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.05.005.
- Peng MC, Chou WJ, Chen SS. Neurological problems in chronic alcoholics. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi. 1991;7(8):404-12.
- Gibson C, Christopher J, Schreck Mitchell و J. Miller. Binge drinking and negative alcohol-related behaviors:A test of selfcontrol theory≪ ,Journal of Criminal Justice. 2004; (32): 411 – 420.
- Easton CJ, Sacco KA, Neavins TM, Wupperman P, George TP. Neurocognitive performance among alcohol dependent men with and without physical violence toward their partners: a preliminary report. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2008;34(1):29- 37. doi: 10.1080/00952990701764326.
- Siciliano V, Mezzasalma L, Lorenzoni V, Pieroni S, Molinaro S. Evaluation of drinking patterns and their impact on alcoholrelated aggression: a national survey of adolescent behaviours. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:950. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458- 13-950.
- World Health Organization. Burden and Socio-Economic Impact of Alcohol: The Bangalore Study. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2006.
- Ersche KD, Turton AJ, Pradhan S, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW. Drug addiction endophenotypes: impulsive versus sensationseeking personality traits. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68(8):770-3. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.015.
- Cohen ES, Fromme K. Differential determinants of young adult substance use and high-risk sexual behavior. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2002;32(6):1124-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1559- 1816.2002.tb01429.x.
- Aliverdinia A, Hemati A. Social analysis of trends in alcohol consumption among students of Tehran University School of Social Sciences. Soc Cult Strat. 2013;2(7):77-102. [Persian ].
- Rahimi Movaghar A, Sahimi Izadian E, Yonosian M. A review study of substance abuse in the country students. Payesh, 2006; 5:83- 104.
- World Health Organization (WHO). Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. 2014. Available from: http://www.who. int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcoholreport/msb_ gsr_2014_1.pdf?ua = 1. Accessed July 1, 2018.
- Nasr V, Nasr N, Malakzadeh Z, Malekzadeh-Mobaraki F, Karamkhani M. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Islamicbased training of alcohols disadvantages on reduce alcohol craving and relapse in individuals with a history of alcohol addiction in the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in Tehran, 1396. Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat. 2020;6(1):36-46. doi: 10.22037/jrrh.v6i1.18829.
- Nikfarjam A, Hajimaghsoudi S, Rastegari A, Haghdoost AA, Nasehi AA, Memaryan N, et al. The frequency of alcohol use in Iranian urban population: the results of a national network scale up survey. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2017;6(2):97-102. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2016.103.
- Damari B, Chegeni M, Esmaili I, Sarrami H, Almadani H, Narenjiha H, et al. Status of alcohol consumption based on the self-report of Iran’s industrial staff. Iran J Epidemiol.2020;15(4):334-42.
- Fagbemi K. Q: What is the best questionnaire to screen for alcohol use disorder in an office practice? Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. 2011; 78: 649.
- Tavoosi M, Montazery A. Alcohol abuse. Soc Wel Quart. 2007;(12):24-9. [Persian].
- Amiri P, Abbasi M, Gharibzadeh S, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Hamzavi Zarghani N, Azizi F. Designation and psychometric assessment of a comprehensive spiritual health questionnaire for Iranian populations. J Med Ethics. 2014;8(30):25-55. [Persian].
- Yaghubi H, Karimi M, Omidi A, Barouti E, Abedi M. Validity and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ- 12) in university students. Int J Behav Sci. 2012;6(2):153-60. [Persian].
- Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Mousavi SJ, Omidvari S. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:341. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9- 341.
- Heckley G, Jarl J, Gerdtham UG. Frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption: new evidence from Sweden. Eur J Health Econ. 2017;18(4):495-517. doi: 10.1007/s10198-016- 0805-2.
- Kun B, Demetrovics Z. Emotional intelligence and addictions: a systematic review. Subst Use Misuse. 2010;45(7-8):1131-60. doi: 10.3109/10826080903567855.
- Hakulinen C, Elovainio M, Batty GD, Virtanen M, Kivimaki M, Jokela M. Personality and alcohol consumption: pooled analysis of 72,949 adults from eight cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;151:110-4. doi: 10.1016/j. drugalcdep.2015.03.008.
- Jiang N, Gonzalez M, Ling PM, Glantz SA. Relationship of smokefree laws and alcohol use with light and intermittent smoking and quit attempts among US adults and alcohol users. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0137023. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0137023.
- Falk DE, Yi HY, Hiller-Sturmhofel S. An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use and disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Alcohol Res Health. 2006;29(3):162- 71.
- Hiscock R, Bauld L, Amos A, Fidler JA, Munafo M. Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1248:107-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06202.x.
- Huckle T, You RQ, Casswell S. Socio-economic status predicts drinking patterns but not alcohol-related consequences independently. Addiction. 2010;105(7):1192-202. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02931.x.
- Gannadi Farnood M, Mahmoud Alilou M. Prediction of smoking, alcohol, drugs, and psychoactive drugs abuse based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse experience in people with borderline personality traits. Research on Addiction. 2014;8(30):97-112. [Persian].
- Bazzaizan S, Rajaei Y, Afsari L. The inhibitor role of religious beliefs and family belonging in tendency towards smoking, addictive substance and alcohol consumption. J Fam Psychol. 2014;1(1):19-28. [Persian].
- Mohamadi N, Shobeiri F, Mahgoob H. The prevalence of substance abuse in students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012;14(1):86-9. [Persian].
- Mohamadkhani SH. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and illegal drugs use among Iranian adolescents. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2011;19(1):32-48. [Persian].
- Ledoux S, Miller P, Choquet M, Plant M. Family structure, parent-child relationships, and alcohol and other drug use among teenagers in France and the United Kingdom. Alcohol Alcohol. 2002;37(1):52-60. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/37.1.52.
- Harden KP. Does religious involvement protect against early drinking? a behavior genetic approach. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51(7):763-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1469- 7610.2010.02247.x.
- Holt JB, Miller JW, Naimi TS, Sui DZ. Religious affiliation and alcohol consumption in the United States. Geograph Rev. 2006; 96(5), 523–42.
- Haghdoost AA, Emami M, Esmaili M, Soberinia A, Nezhad Ghaderi M, Mehrolhassani MH. Survey the status and causes of alcohol consumption: a case study of the epidemic alcohol poisoning in Rafsanjan in 2013. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2015;13(10):991-1006. [Persian].