Document Type : Brief Communication


1 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

2 Students Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

4 Department of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases Research Center (IDRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran


Predicting the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) with comorbidities has been an interesting subject of study in the field of medicine. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, radiologic features, and severe outcomes of COVID-19 among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with or without underlying comorbidity diseases. In this retrospective cohort study conducted from 1 June 2020 to 30 September 2020, 320 hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and admitted to public hospitals in Arak, Iran, were examined. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 56.78 ± 20.06 years. The comorbidity group showed a substantially greater percentage of defined nodular pattern in chest X-ray (7.6% vs 2%, P = 0.024) and plural effusion in CT scan findings (9% vs 0%, P = 0.004). Intensive care unit (ICU) admission (6.9% vs. 0.6%, P = 0.003), mechanical ventilation (5.0% vs. 0.6%, P = 0.018), and death (6.3% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.002) were higher in the comorbidity group. Comorbidity group had a considerably greater ratio of ICU admission, invasive ventilation, and mortality.


1. Ye C, Zhang S, Zhang X, Cai H, Gu J, Lian J, et al. Impact of comorbidities on patients with COVID-19: a large retrospective study in Zhejiang, China. J Med Virol. 2020;92(11):2821-9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26183. 
2. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020;109:102433. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433. 
3. Guan WJ, Liang WH, Zhao Y, Liang HR, Chen ZS, Li YM, et al. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(5):2000547. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00547-2020. 
4. Qiu P, Zhou Y, Wang F, Wang H, Zhang M, Pan X, et al. Clinical characteristics, laboratory outcome characteristics, comorbidities, and complications of related COVID-19 deceased: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020;32(9):1869-78. doi: 10.1007/s40520-020- 01664-3. 
5. Baj J, Karakuła-Juchnowicz H, Teresiński G, Buszewicz G, Ciesielka M, Sitarz E, et al. COVID-19: specific and non-specific clinical manifestations and symptoms: the current state of knowledge. J Clin Med. 2020;9(6). doi: 10.3390/ jcm9061753. 
6. Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Akbari A. Prevalence of underlying diseases in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e35. 
7. Zhou Y, Yang Q, Chi J, Dong B, Lv W, Shen L, et al. Comorbidities and the risk of severe or fatal outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;99:47-56. doi: 10.1016/j. ijid.2020.07.029. 
8. Raoufi M, Safavi Naini SAA, Azizan Z, Jafar Zade F, Shojaeian F, Ghanbari Boroujeni M, et al. Correlation between chest computed tomography scan findings and mortality of COVID-19 cases; a cross sectional study. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e57. 
9. Rastad H, Karim H, Ejtahed HS, Tajbakhsh R, Noorisepehr M, Babaei M, et al. Risk and predictors of in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020;12:57. doi: 10.1186/ s13098-020-00565-9.