Mean Scores of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Iranian University Students Based on DASS-21: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Document Type: Review article

Authors

1 Associate Professor of Psychology, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran

Abstract

Background and aims: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder, and students are more
predisposed to depression than other populations. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the
mean depression score in Iranian students based on DASS-21.
Methods: The search was carried out using keywords Depression, Student, DASS-21 and Iran in
domestic databases, including SID, Medlib, IranMedex, Irandoc, and Magiran. Data were analyzed
using a meta-analysis (random effects model). The heterogeneity of studies was studied using the
I2 index. Data were analyzed using the Stata software version 11. DASS-21 had been used in all
reviewed studies.
Results: The sample size was 3229 people included in 17 studies. The mean depression score in
Iranian students based on DASS-21 was 9.30 (95% CI: 12.57-6.03), 8.90 in female students (95% CI:
4.50-13.29) and 8.45 in male students (95% CI: 4.03-12.86). The mean scores of anxiety and stress in
students were 8.58 (95% CI: 5.95-12.86) and 9.91 (95% CI: 11.28-8.54), respectively.
Conclusion: The mean depression score is higher in female students than in male students, and the
mean score of stress is slightly higher than those of anxiety and depression.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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