Document Type: Review article


1 Associate Professor of Psychology, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran


Background and aims: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder, and students are more
predisposed to depression than other populations. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the
mean depression score in Iranian students based on DASS-21.
Methods: The search was carried out using keywords Depression, Student, DASS-21 and Iran in
domestic databases, including SID, Medlib, IranMedex, Irandoc, and Magiran. Data were analyzed
using a meta-analysis (random effects model). The heterogeneity of studies was studied using the
I2 index. Data were analyzed using the Stata software version 11. DASS-21 had been used in all
reviewed studies.
Results: The sample size was 3229 people included in 17 studies. The mean depression score in
Iranian students based on DASS-21 was 9.30 (95% CI: 12.57-6.03), 8.90 in female students (95% CI:
4.50-13.29) and 8.45 in male students (95% CI: 4.03-12.86). The mean scores of anxiety and stress in
students were 8.58 (95% CI: 5.95-12.86) and 9.91 (95% CI: 11.28-8.54), respectively.
Conclusion: The mean depression score is higher in female students than in male students, and the
mean score of stress is slightly higher than those of anxiety and depression.


Main Subjects

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