1.Adler NE, Boyce T, Chesney MA, Cohen S, Folkman S, Kahn RL, et al. Socioeconomic status and health. The challenge of the gradient. Am Psychol. 1994;49(1):15-24. doi: 10.1037/0003- 066X.49.1.15.
2.Fredrickson BL, Joiner T. Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychol Sci. 2002;13(2):172-5. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00431.
3.Pratt LA, Brody DJ. Depression in the United States household population, 2005-2006. NCHS Data Brief No. 7. Atlanta, GA, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2008.
4.Cunado J, de Gracia FP. Does education affect happiness? Evidence for Spain. Soc Indic Res. 2012;108(1):185-96. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9874-x.
5.Chen WC. How education enhances happiness: Comparison of mediating factors in four East Asian countries. Soc Indic Res. 2012;106(1):117-31. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9798-5.
6.Sato K, Yuki M. The association between self-esteem and happiness differs in relationally mobile vs. stable interpersonal contexts. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1113. doi: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2014.01113. 7. Jakoby N. Socioeconomic status differences in negative emotions. Sociol Res Online. 2016;21(2):1-10. doi: 10.5153/ sro.3895.
8.Holahan CJ, Moos RH. Life stressors, personal and social resources, and depression: a 4-year structural model. J Abnorm Psychol. 1991;100(1):31-8. doi: 10.1037/0021- 843X.100.1.31.
9.Assari S. Unequal gain of equal resources across racial groups. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2017;7(1):1-9. doi: 10.15171/ ijhpm.2017.90.
10.Assari S. Health disparities due to diminished return among black Americans: Public policy solutions. Soc Issues Policy Rev. 2018;12(1):112-45. doi: 10.1111/sipr.12042.
11.Fuller-Rowell TE, Curtis DS, Doan SN, Coe CL. Racial disparities in the health benefits of educational attainment: a study of inflammatory trajectories among African American and white adults. Psychosom Med. 2015;77(1):33-40. doi: 10.1097/psy.0000000000000128.
12.Assari S. Parental education better helps white than black families escape poverty: National survey of children’s health. Economies. 2018;6(2):30. doi: 10.3390/economies6020030. 13. Assari S. Diminished economic return of socioeconomic status for black families. Soc Sci. 2018;7(5):74. doi: 10.3390/ socsci7050074.
14.Assari S, Mistry R. Educational Attainment and smoking status in a national sample of American adults; evidence for the blacks’ diminished return. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(4). doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040763.
15.Assari S, Moghani Lankarani M. Educational attainment promotes fruit and vegetable intake for whites but not blacks. J 2018;1(1):29-41. doi: 10.3390/j1010005.
16.Assari S. Combined racial and gender differences in the longterm predictive role of education on depressive symptoms and chronic medical conditions. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017;4(3):385-96. doi: 10.1007/s40615-016-0239-7.
17.Assari S, Thomas A, Caldwell CH, Mincy RB. Blacks’ diminished health return of family structure and socioeconomic status; 15 years of follow-up of a national urban sample of youth. J Urban Health. 2018;95(1):21-35. doi: 10.1007/s11524-017- 0217-3.
18.Assari S, Caldwell CH, Mincy RB. Maternal educational attainment at birth promotes future self-rated health of White but not Black youth: a 15-year cohort of a national sample. J Clin Med. 2018;7(5). doi: 10.3390/jcm7050093.
19.Assari S. Socioeconomic status and self-rated oral health; diminished return among hispanic whites. Dent J (Basel). 2018;6(2). doi: 10.3390/dj6020011.
20.Assari S, Lapeyrouse LM, Neighbors HW. Income and selfrated mental health: Diminished returns for high income black Americans. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018;8(5). doi: 10.3390/ bs8050050.
21.Hayward MD, Hummer RA, Sasson I. Trends and group differences in the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality: implications for understanding education’s causal influence. Soc Sci Med. 2015;127:8-18. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.11.024.
22.Assari S, Lankarani MM. Race and urbanity alter the protective effect of education but not income on mortality. Front Public Health. 2016;4:100. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00100.
23.Backlund E, Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ. A comparison of the relationships of education and income with mortality: the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Soc Sci Med. 1999;49(10):1373-84.
24.Everett BG, Rehkopf DH, Rogers RG. The nonlinear relationship between education and mortality: An examination of cohort, race/ethnic, and gender differences. Popul Res Policy Rev. 2013;32(6). doi: 10.1007/s11113-013-9299-0.
25.Williams DR, Sternthal M. Understanding racialethnic disparities in health: sociological contributions. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51 Suppl:S15-27. doi: 10.1177/0022146510383838.
26.Assari S, Lankarani MM, Caldwell CH. Does Discrimination Explain High Risk of Depression among High-Income African American Men? Behav Sci (Basel). 2018;8(4). doi: 10.3390/ bs8040040.
27.Assari S, Nikahd A, Malekahmadi MR, Lankarani MM, Zamanian H. Race by gender group differences in the protective effects of socioeconomic factors against sustained health problems across five domains. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016. doi: 10.1007/s40615-016-0291-3.
28.Ross CE, Mirowsky J. Refining the association between education and health: the effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity. Demography. 1999;36(4):445-60.
29.Montez JK, Hummer RA, Hayward MD, Woo H, Rogers RG. Trends in the educational gradient of US adult mortality from 1986 through 2006 by race, gender, and age group. Res Aging. 2011;33(2):145-71. doi: 10.1177/0164027510392388.
30.Hudson DL, Bullard KM, Neighbors HW, Geronimus AT, Yang J, Jackson JS. Are benefits conferred with greater socioeconomic position undermined by racial discrimination among African American men? J Mens Health. 2012;9(2):127- 36. doi: 10.1016/j.jomh.2012.03.006.
31.Hudson DL. Race, Socioeconomic Position and Depression: The Mental Health Costs of Upward Mobility. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan; 2009.
32.Assari S. Ethnic and gender differences in additive effects of socio-economics, psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity on suicidal ideation among blacks. Int J Prev Med. 2015;6:53. doi: 10.4103/2008-7802.158913.
33.Assari S, Caldwell CH. High risk of depression in high-income African American boys. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018;5(4):808-19. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0426-1. 34. Assari S. Social Determinants of depression: The intersections of race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Brain Sci. 2017;7(12). doi: 10.3390/brainsci7120156.
35.Assari S, Caldwell CH, Zimmerman MA. Family structure and subsequent anxiety symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return. Brain Sci. 2018;8(6). doi: 10.3390/brainsci8060097.
36.Assari S, Preiser B, Kelly M. Education and income predict future emotional well-being of Whites but not Blacks: A ten-year cohort. Brain Sci. 2018;8(7). doi: 10.3390/ brainsci8070122.
37.Ferraro KF, Kelley-Moore JA. Self-rated health and mortality among black and white adults: examining the dynamic evaluation thesis. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001;56(4):S195-205. doi: 10.1093/geronb/56.4.s195.
38.Assari S. High income protects whites but not African Americans against risk of depression. Healthcare (Basel). 2018;6(2). doi: 10.3390/healthcare6020037.
39.Assari S. The link between mental health and obesity: role of individual and contextual factors. Int J Prev Med. 2014;5(3):247-9.
40.Assari S, Preiser B, Lankarani MM, Caldwell CH. Subjective socioeconomic status moderates the association between discrimination and depression in African American Youth. Brain Sci. 2018;8(4). doi: 10.3390/brainsci8040071.
41.Assari S. Life expectancy gain due to employment status depends on race, gender, education, and their intersections. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018;5(2):375-86. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0381-x.
42.Assari S, Caldwell CH, Mincy R. Family socioeconomic status at birth and youth impulsivity at age 15; Blacks’ diminished return. Children (Basel). 2018;5(5). doi: 10.3390/ children5050058.
43.Phelan JC, Link BG, Tehranifar P. Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: theory, evidence, and policy implications. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51 Suppl:S28-40. doi: 10.1177/0022146510383498.
44.Link BG, Phelan JC. Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities. In Handbook of medical sociology. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall; 2010:3-17.
45.Phelan JC, Link BG. Is racism a fundamental cause of inequalities in health? Annu Rev Sociol. 2015;41:311-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112305.
46.Hudson DL, Neighbors HW, Geronimus AT, Jackson JS. Racial discrimination, John Henryism, and depression among African Americans. J Black Psychol. 2016;42(3):221-43. doi: 10.1177/0095798414567757.
47.Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agenor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett MT. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet. 2017;389(10077):1453-63. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(17)30569-x.
48.Assari S. Educational Attainment Better Protects African American Women than African American Men Against Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress. Brain Sci. 2018;8(10). doi: 10.3390/brainsci8100182.