Document Type : Review article


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran


Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) as active biological compounds can pose a threat to the environment through acute and chronic toxicity in organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. They also have a range of possible adverse effects on environmental and ecological health. Estradiol, as one of the natural estrogenic hormones released by the humans and livestock, may exert endocrine-disrupting effects on the nanogram-per-liter range and cause serious problems for the aquatic organisms and animals in many aquatic systems. Various studies have reported the presence of synthetic estrogens such as 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and natural estrogens including 17 beta-estradiol (E2) in wastewater sludge, surface water, river bed sediment, and also digested and activated sludge. The aim of the present study was to review and evaluate the endocrine disrupting compounds especially 17 beta-estradiol, as a representative of estrogen hormones present in the environment and their disturbing effects on humans and wildlife.


Main Subjects

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