Psychosocial Factors and Their Relationship With Selfmanagement in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Conceptual Framework Based on Socio-Cognitive Theory

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Community-oriented Nursing and Midwifery Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

Background and aims: Maintaining the health of diabetic people depends on the self-management
of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of distress, self-efficacy, perceived social
support, and self-care with self-management behaviors in the patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: The present analytical-descriptive study was conducted on 228 diabetic patients, during
2016-2017. Most of the participants were male (60.6%) and the mean age of them was 51.95±15.04.
The participants were selected based on a simple random sampling method after completing the
consent form. The required data were collected through questionnaires of distress, self-efficacy,
perceived social support, self-care, and self-management. The data were statistically analyzed using
SPSS software version 22.0.
Results: Out of 228 participants, 77.3% were married and the highest frequency in terms of educational
attainment was related to those with a high school diploma. The results indicated that the duration
of affliction with diabetes was less than 10-15 years in 88.9% of the participants. Pearson correlation
test demonstrated that the total score of self-management had a significant relationship with the
total scores of distress, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and self-care (P<0.005). The results of
regression analysis also indicated that distress, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and self-care
had a predictive power of 0.43% for self-management. Among these variables, the predictive powers
of self-efficacy and self-care were statistically significant, and the prediction rate of self-efficacy was
more than that of other ones (β = 0.17).
Conclusion: The study findings showed that the researchers who want to perform interventions based
on cognitive-social theory should mainly focus on self-care and self-efficacy.

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