Document Type: Original Article
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Community-oriented Nursing and Midwifery Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Background and aims: Maintaining the health of diabetic people depends on the self-management
of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of distress, self-efficacy, perceived social
support, and self-care with self-management behaviors in the patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: The present analytical-descriptive study was conducted on 228 diabetic patients, during
2016-2017. Most of the participants were male (60.6%) and the mean age of them was 51.95±15.04.
The participants were selected based on a simple random sampling method after completing the
consent form. The required data were collected through questionnaires of distress, self-efficacy,
perceived social support, self-care, and self-management. The data were statistically analyzed using
SPSS software version 22.0.
Results: Out of 228 participants, 77.3% were married and the highest frequency in terms of educational
attainment was related to those with a high school diploma. The results indicated that the duration
of affliction with diabetes was less than 10-15 years in 88.9% of the participants. Pearson correlation
test demonstrated that the total score of self-management had a significant relationship with the
total scores of distress, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and self-care (P<0.005). The results of
regression analysis also indicated that distress, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and self-care
had a predictive power of 0.43% for self-management. Among these variables, the predictive powers
of self-efficacy and self-care were statistically significant, and the prediction rate of self-efficacy was
more than that of other ones (β = 0.17).
Conclusion: The study findings showed that the researchers who want to perform interventions based
on cognitive-social theory should mainly focus on self-care and self-efficacy.