The Effect of Attitude and Prayer-Related Behaviors on Depression: A Systematic Review

Document Type: Review article


1 Psychology Department, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran

2 Psychology Department, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran /Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran


Background and aims: Prayer means reading and asking for help and satisfying the need. The
prevalence of mental diseases has had an increasing trend in Iran. The aim of this study was to know
the role of attitudes and praying-related behaviors in the treatment of patients with depression in Iran.
Methods: By searching in the databases such as SID, Magiran, Medlib, Iranmedex, Google Scholar,
Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, 16 relevant articles were extracted. Data were analyzed by
using meta-analysis (random effects model). Moreover, heterogenecity of the studies was checked
using Q and I2 statistics.
Results: To examine the relationship between the rate of depression and praying, it analyzed in both
case and control groups as pretest and posttest. It was reported that the rate of depression before the
test in the case group was 49.4 (95% CI: 34.04-64.04) and in the control group was 27.51 (95% CI:
15.51, 39.51). For the case group, it was reported that the rate of depression decreased to 12.43 (95%
CI: 2.4-22.4) and for the control group it was 19.83 (95% CI: 11.8-27.83).
Conclusion: The attitude and the praying-related behavior had positive effects on the depression of
individuals and it could cause the depression level diminishing. Therefore, this therapeutic approach
can be considered as a common method in the treatment of mental disorders and the psychologists
and the therapists can use this method for the treatment of their patients in therapeutic centers.