Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran/Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

 
Background and aims: Injection drug use is considered as an international public health threat that can lead to serious health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to obtain a profile of injection drug users (IDUs) in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2017.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 606 male IDUs who were recruited from 2 drop-in centers in Kermanshah using a snowball sampling method. Continuous and categorical variables are expressed as the mean and standard deviation, as well as frequency and percentage, respectively.
Results: The mean age of participants in this study was 36.7 ± 8.51 years and at first drug injection was 29.35 ± 8.04 years. In addition, the highest frequency of injection drugs belonged to heroin (99.00%), methamphetamine (86.00%), and opium (85.00%), respectively. However, the lowest injection drugs were opium syrup (0.50%), ecstasy (0.50%), and amphorphine (0.20%).
Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, heroin, methamphetamine, and opium had the highest frequency injection among male IDUs in Kermanshah, and the age of the first drug injection was low among these individuals. Accordingly, wider coverage prevention programs are highly recommended, including harm reduction programs, counseling centers with improved quality of services, treatment programs, and greater attention to human resource development-based counseling and education.

Keywords

Main Subjects

1. Mathers BM, Degenhardt L, Phillips B, Wiessing L, Hickman M, Strathdee SA, et al. Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet. 2008;372(9651):1733-45. doi: 10.1016/ s0140-6736(08)61311-2. 
2. Workowski KA, Berman S. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010. 
3. Nelson PK, Mathers BM, Cowie B, Hagan H, Des Jarlais D, Horyniak D, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: results of systematic reviews. Lancet. 2011;378(9791):571-83. doi: 10.1016/ s0140-6736(11)61097-0. 
4. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). World Drug Report 2008. 13th ed. Vienna: UNODC; 2008. 
5. Rahimi-Movaghar A, Rad Goodarzi R, Izadian E, Mohammadi MR, Hosseini M, Vazirian M. The impact of Bam earthquake on substance users in the first 2 weeks: a rapid assessment. J Urban Health. 2005;82(3):370-7. doi: 10.1093/jurban/jti089. 
6. Razzaghi EM, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Green TC, Khoshnood K. Profiles of risk: a qualitative study of injecting drug users in Tehran, Iran. Harm Reduct J. 2006;3:12. doi: 10.1186/1477- 7517-3-12. 
7. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Rockville, MD: HHS, SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies; 2003. 
8. Ziaaddini H, Ziaaddini MR. The household survey of drug abuse in Kerman, Iran. J Appl Sci. 2005;5:380-2. doi: 10.3923/ jas.2005.380.382. 
9. Shariat SV, Elahi A. Symptoms and course of psychosis after methamphetamine abuse: one-year follow-up of a case. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;12(5). doi: 10.4088/ PCC.10l00959gry. 
10. Rahimi-Movaghar A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Aaraj E, Hermez J. Assessment of Situation and Response to Drug Use and its Harms in the Middle East and North Africa, 2012. (http:// www.mei.edu/content/map/drug-use-and-harmreduction-mena-region-and-lebanon. Accessed May 2016, 16. 
11. Meysamie A, Sedaghat M, Mahmoodi M, Ghodsi SM, Eftekhar B. Opium use in a rural area of the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15(2):425-31. 
12. Goodarzi F, Mehrpour O, Eizadi-Mood N. A study to evaluate factors associated with seizure in tramadol poisoning in Iran. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2011;5(2):66-9. 
13. Eskandarieh S, Nikfarjam A, Tarjoman T, Nasehi A, Jafari F, Saberi-Zafarghandi MB. Descriptive aspects of injection drug users in Iran’s national harm reduction program by methadone maintenance treatment. Iran J Public Health. 2013;42(6):588- 93. 
14. Karrari P, Mehrpour O, Afshari R, Keyler D. Pattern of illicit drug use in patients referred to addiction treatment centres in Birjand, Eastern Iran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63(6):711-6. 
15. Ahmadi J, Hasani M. Prevalence of substance use among Iranian high school students. Addict Behav. 2003;28(2):375-9. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4603(01)00246-5. 
16. Amin-Esmaeili M, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Gholamrezaei M, Razaghi EM. Profile of people who inject drugs in Tehran, Iran. Acta Med Iran. 2016;54(12):793-805. 
17. Rafiey H, Narenjiha H, Shirinbayan P, Noori R, Javadipour M, Roshanpajouh M, et al. Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors. Harm Reduct J. 2009;6:21. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-6-21. 
18. Malekinejad M. Assessment of The Use of Respondent- Driven Sampling for Studying Populations Most at Risk of HIV Infection. University of California, Berkeley; 2008. 
19. Rahimi-Movaghar A, Mohammad K, Razaghi EM. Trend of drug abuse situation in Iran: a three-decade survey. Hakim Res J. 2002;5(3):171-81. 
20. Galea S, Vlahov D. Social determinants and the health of drug users: socioeconomic status, homelessness, and incarceration. Public Health Rep. 2002;117(Suppl 1):S135-45.