Document Type : Letter to the editor

Authors

1 Department of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

Abstract

Coronaviruses are important human and animal pathogens. In December 2019, a new virus from the coronavirus family, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), triggered the outbreak of pneumonia from Wuhan across China. The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through unknown intermediate animals. Currently, the lives of millions of people around the world are affected by the crisis caused by the outbreak of COVID-19 diseases, which has brought huge economic and social costs. Despite the efforts made in many countries to reduce the risks and the negative effects of this crisis, the damage and the resulting costs are still increasing. People with cancer are among the groups that need more attention and are highlighted as high-risk groups. The risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 as a consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is not uniform. Evidence show that patients with cancer have an increased risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19 compared with the non-cancer population. It seems that cancer patients are at a higher risk of respiratory viruses such as influenza because of their frequently observed immunocompromised state. Patients with blood malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma, along with those in active treatment for any type of cancer and people who have undergone bone marrow transplants are among the high-risk groups.

Keywords

Main Subjects

1.Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen YM, Wang W, Song ZG, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020;579(7798):265-9. doi: 10.1038/s41586- 020-2008-3. 
2.Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. Addendum: a pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;588(7836):E6. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z. 
3.McKibbin WJ, Fernando R. The Global Macroeconomic Impacts of COVID-19: Seven Scenarios. The Australian National University; 2020. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3547729. 
4.Lee LY, Cazier JB, Angelis V, Arnold R, Bisht V, Campton NA, et al. COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer on chemotherapy or other anticancer treatments: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10241):1919-26. doi: 10.1016/ s0140-6736(20)31173-9. 
5.Liang W, Guan W, Chen R, Wang W, Li J, Xu K, et al. Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. Lancet Oncol. 2020;21(3):335-7. doi: 10.1016/s1470- 2045(20)30096-6. 
6.Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020;323(13):1239-42. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648. 
7.Mapes D. Coronavirus: What Cancer Patients Need to Know. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; 2020. https://www. fredhutch.org/en/news/center-news/2020/03/coronavirus-what-cancer-patients-need-to-know.html. 
8.Indini A, Rijavec E, Ghidini M, Cattaneo M, Grossi F. Developing a risk assessment score for patients with cancer during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Eur J Cancer. 2020;135:47-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2020.05.017. 
9.Hydroxychloroquine Combination Risky for Cancer Patients with Covid-19: Study. The Straits Times; 2020. https://www. straitstimes.com/world/united-states/hydroxychloroquine-combination-risky-for-cancer-patients-with-covid-19-study. 
10.Yu J, Ouyang W, Chua MLK, Xie C. SARS-CoV-2 transmission in patients with cancer at a tertiary care hospital in Wuhan, China. JAMA Oncol. 2020;6(7):1108-10. doi: 10.1001/ jamaoncol.2020.0980. 
11.Repici A, Maselli R, Colombo M, Gabbiadini R, Spadaccini M, Anderloni A, et al. Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: what the department of endoscopy should know. Gastrointest Endosc. 2020;92(1):192-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2020.03.019. 
12.Porzio G, Cortellini A, Bruera E, Verna L, Ravoni G, Peris F, et al. Home care for cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemic: the double triage protocol. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2020;60(1):e5-e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.021. 
13.Shahi F, Mirzania M, Aghili M, Dabiri M, Seifi S, Bary A, et al. Modifications in breast cancer guidelines in COVID-19 pandemic; an Iranian consensus. Arch Breast Cancer. 2020;7(1):14-21. doi: 10.32768/abc.20207114-21. 
14.Curigliano G. What to Expect: Oncology’s Response to Coronavirus in Italy: “It’s Like Being in a War”. The Cancer Letter; 2020. Available at: https://cancerletter.Com/ articles/20200311_1/. Accessed March 13, 2020.