Background and aims: Leishmaniasis is one of the most overlooked diseases in the tropical areas, which can lead to many deaths and illnesses. The present study was designed to determine the trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the south of Fars province (south of Iran) during the years 2007-2016.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of all people with cutaneous leishmaniasis referring to the Center for Infectious Diseases in four cities of Larestan, Gerash, Evaz and Khonj in the south of Fars province during the years 2007-2016. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed using the Cochrane Armitage trend test. The significance level was considered 5%.
Results: From 2007 to 2016, a total of 4602 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported. The highest and lowest incidence rate (659.1 versus 88. 3 per 100,000 people) was in 2008 and 2012. The incidence of the disease has been significantly reduced (P Trend = 0.003). The 0-4 age group had the highest incidence of the disease (69.64 per 100,000 people), and the hands were the most common organ affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis (37%).
Conclusion: According to the research findings, the incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis is declining; however, leishmaniasis is still one of the endemic diseases in the region. Therefore, preventive and controlling interventional programs including education of individuals, especially children, environmental cleanup, and extermination and control of stray dogs and rodents in the suburbs can be effective in reducing new cases of the disease.