Background and aims: Leishmaniasis is one of the most overlooked diseases in tropical areas, which can lead to many deaths and illnesses. The present study was designed to determine the trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the south of Fars Province (south of Iran) during 2007-2016.
Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of all people with cutaneous leishmaniasis referring to the Center for Infectious Diseases in Larestan, Gerash, Evaz, and Khonj in the south of Fars Province during 2007-2016. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed using the Cochrane-Armitage trend test, and the significance level was considered 5%.
Results: In general, 4602 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported from 2007 to 2016. The highest and lowest incidence rates (659.1 versus 88. 3 per 100 000 people) were observed in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In addition, the incidence of the disease significantly reduced (P Trend = 0.003). Finally, the 0-4 age group had the highest incidence of the disease (69.64 per 100 000 people), and the hands were the most common organ affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis (37%).
Conclusion: According to the research findings, the incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis is declining although leishmaniasis is still one of the endemic diseases in the region. Therefore, preventive and controlling interventional programs can be effective in reducing new cases of the disease, including the education of individuals, especially children, environmental cleanup, and extermination and control of stray dogs and rodents in the suburbs.