Original Article Epidemiology
Behavioral Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases Among Medical and Nonmedical Undergraduate Students of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Rajib Mondal; Rajib Chandra Sarker; Palash Chandra Banik

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 119-122

http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.25

Abstract
  Background and aims: Behavioral risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are established during early age and continued into adulthood. In Bangladesh, the scenario of NCD risk factors among students was inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the prevalence of behavioral ...  Read More

Original Article Epidemiology
Level of Satisfaction of Patients With Dental Care Services Provided by Dental Clinic of Shahrekord University

Behrad Tanbakuchi; Masoud Amiri; Sara Valizadeh

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 123-127

http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.26

Abstract
  Background and aims: Level of satisfaction and opinion of patients are important factors that might be considered in assessing the quality of health care services. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction of patients who visited dental clinic of School of Dentistry, Shahrekord University ...  Read More

Original Article Nursing
Family Needs of Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Units

Fateme Hasandoost; Maryam Momeni; Leila Dehghankar; Nastaran Norouzi Parashkouh; Haydeh Rezaei Looyeh; Fateme Emamgholian

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 128-132

http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.27

Abstract
  Background and aims: Organizational support of family members of the patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) potentially reduces mental stresses and enables them to better comply with and support the patients. The current study aimed at evaluating the needs of families of the patients admitted ...  Read More

Original Article Health Promotion
Psychosocial Factors and Their Relationship With Selfmanagement in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Conceptual Framework Based on Socio-Cognitive Theory

Leili Rabiei; Masoud Lotfizadeh; Mohamad Abbasi; Akbar Babaei Heydarabadi; Reza Masoudi

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 133-138

http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.28

Abstract
  Background and aims: Maintaining the health of diabetic people depends on the self-management of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of distress, self-efficacy, perceived social support, and self-care with self-management behaviors in the patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: ...  Read More

Original Article Epidemiology
Prevalence of Chronic Bronchitis in the Northwest of Iran: Results of the Pilot Phase of the Azar Cohort Study

Delara Laghousi; Mahasti Alizadeh Mizani; Nayyereh Aminisani; Javid Sadeghi; Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 139-144

http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.29

Abstract
  Background and aims: Although chronic bronchitis is markedly under-diagnosed in the general population, it has a significant impact on the health status and the well-being of patients as well as healthcare resource consumption. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and its ...  Read More

Original Article Epidemiology
Evaluating Heavy Metal Contamination Effects on the Caspian Pond Turtle Health (Mauremys caspica caspica) Through Analyzing Oxidative Stress Factors

Somayeh Namroodi; Annalisa Zaccaroni; Hassan Rezaei; Seyedeh Malihe Hoseini

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 145-150

http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.30

Abstract
  Background and aims: Antioxidant defense plays a vital part in organism protection against oxidative stress which is produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress represents a serious threat to the animals facing with heavy metals. This study was designed to analyze the habitat suitability ...  Read More

Review article Environmental Health
The Presence of 17 Beta-Estradiol in the Environment: Health Effects and Increasing Environmental Concerns

Mahrokh Forghani; Gholamreza Sadeghi; Mazyar Peyda

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 151-158

http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.31

Abstract
  Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) as active biological compounds can pose a threat to the environment through acute and chronic toxicity in organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. They also have a range of possible adverse effects on environmental and ecological ...  Read More

Review article Molecular Epidemiology
Molecular Epidemiology and Surveillance Program in Iran: Present Status and Future Prospect

Massoud Hajia

Volume 5, Issue 4 , December 2018, Pages 159-162

http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2018.32

Abstract
  Background and aims: The food-borne pathogens appear to be a reemerging and endless problem in the human community all over the world. Hence, all the outbreaks should be constantly monitored for pandemic strains and new mutant genotypes. The main purpose behind the molecular typing methods is the comparison ...  Read More